Year Ender Review of the Ministry of Rural Development

Ministry of Rural Development

Year Ender Review of the Ministry of Rural Development

Posted On: 24 DEC 2019 5:58PM by PIB Delhi

The mandate of Ministry of Rural Development (MoRD) is sustainable and inclusive growth of rural India by increasing livelihoods opportunities, providing social safety and developing rural infrastructure. The five major rural development themes around which the current flagship Programmes of MoRD are centered are as follows:


i) Rural Housing (through Pradhan Mantri Awaas Yojana – Gramin)


ii) Rural Employment (through Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme)


iii) Rural Connectivity (through Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana)


iv) Rural Livelihood (through Deendayal Antyodaya Yojana – National Rural Livelihoods Mission)


v) Rural Skilling (through Deen Dayal Upadhyaya Grameen Kaushalya Yojana and Rural Self Employment Training Institutes)


Apart from the above, the National Social Assistance Programme (NSAP), Shyama Prasad Mukherjee RURBAN Mission (SPMRM) and Saansad Adarsh Gram Yojana (SAGY) are other important Programmes of MoRD. The Department is implementing programmes based on the evidence based selection of poor households as per the deprivation criteria of Socio Economic Census (SECC, 2011) data. MoRD is committed towards creating livelihoods opportunities in farm and nonfarm sectors, improved road connectivity, forward and backward linkages for higher economic returns, greater visibility of women across the supply chain, housing for all in the rural areas with provision of lavatories and electricity and higher order federations of women for establishing rural micro enterprises which propels the economic growth of the rural India.


Pradhan Mantri Gram SadakYojana (PMGSY)

Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana (PMGSY), launched on 25th December, 2000 for providing connectivity by way of a single all weather road to the eligible unconnected habitations as per core-network with a population of 500 persons in plain areas, and 250 persons & above in respect of special category states like NE, Sikkim, HP, J&K & Uttarakhand, desert areas, tribal & backward districts. The programme also provides for upgradation of the existing 'Through Routes' and ‘Major Rural Links’ (MRL).

Brief Details of the Initiatives of PMGSY:

  1. Government approved phase-III of PMGSY for consolidation of 1,25,000 Km Through Routes and Major Rural Links connecting habitations, inter-alia, to Gramin Agricultural Markets (GrAMs), Higher Secondary Schools and Hospitals.
  2. Programme guidelines issued and software developed. Training workshops organized for 13 States targeted for transition to PMGSY-III during 2019-20. It is expected to sanction 15,000 Km by March, 2020.
  3. 36,037 Km road length has been constructed and 5,952 habitations have been provided connectivity so far during current year.
  4. E-marg software for maintenance of roads has been developed and is being rolled out in all States.


Deen Dayal Upadhyaya Grameen Kaushalya Yojana (DDU-GKY) and Rural Self Employment Training Institutes (RSETIs)


Ministry of Rural Development is implementing two welfare schemes in the field of skill development for rural poor youth under the National Rural Livelihoods Mission (NRLM) as follows:-

  1. Deen Dayal Upadhyaya Grameen Kaushalya Yojana (DDU-GKY) which is a placement linked skill development program for wage employment.
  2. Skill development through Rural Self Employment and Training Institutes (RSETIs) enabling a trainee to take bank credit and start his/her own Micro-enterprise. Some such trainees may also seek regular salaried jobs. 


  1. Deen Dayal Upadhyaya Grameen Kaushalya Yojana (DDU-GKY):


Currently DDU GKY is being implemented in 27 States and 3 Union Territories and with 641 training partners in 1624 active training centre across the country. Training is being imparted in 52 sectors covering 526 trades through 1414 ongoing projects as on date. During the current calendar year i.e 2019 (from 1.1.2019 to 20.12.2019), 2.29 lakhs candidates have been trained and 1.39 lakh candidates have been placed across the country.


  1. Rural Self Employment Training Institutes (RSETIs):


Currently there are 585 functional RSETIs  in the Country. At present, RSETIs offer training in  61 vocations classified under four major areas viz. agriculture, processing, product manufacture and general entrepreneurship development programme. During the current calendar year i.e 2019 (from 1.1.2019 to 20.12.2019), 262570 candidates have been trained and 143702 candidates have been settled across the country. 


Deendayal Antyodaya Yojana – National Rural Livelihoods Mission



    1. Launched in 2011, the Deendayal Antyodaya Yojana- National Rural Livelihoods Mission (DAY-NRLM) aims at mobilizing about 9 crore rural poor households into Self Help Groups (SHGs) in a phased manner and provide them long-term support such that they diversify their livelihoods, improve their incomes and quality of life.


    1. All “automatically included” households and all households with “at least one deprivation” as per the Socio Economic and Caste Census (SECC) 2011 data constitute the target group of DAY-NRLM. The list of the rural poor is also validated by Participatory Identification of the Poor (PIP) which is further vetted by the Gram Sabha.


    1. The major components of the DAY-NRLM are:
      1. Promotion of sustainable institutions of the poor
      2. Ensuring access to financial services
      3. Promote diversified livelihoods opportunities for the poor, in farm and non- farm sectors.
      4. Promotion of skill development and access to jobs
      5. Promotion of social inclusion, social development and human development


    1. The key achievements made under the Mission is furnished below: -
      1. Geographical Coverage: The Mission has covered 5894 blocks spread over 646 districts across 29 States and 5 UTs under the intensive strategy up to Oct’19.


      1. Social Mobilization/Institution Building: More than 6.47 crore women have been mobilized into 58.7 lakh Self-Help Groups (SHGs) up to Oct’

19. During the year 2019-20, up to October, 19; about 67.9 lakh women have been mobilized in to 6.55 lakh SHGs against the target of mobilizing

93.66 lakh women into 8.10 lakh SHGs.


      1. Social Capital: Community driven approach is central to the Mission's implementation strategy. As on date, more than 2.50 lakh Community Resource Persons have been trained on multiple interventions. This includes more than 38,032 trained Krishi Sakhi and Pashu Sakhi who provide last mile livelihoods extension services.


      1. Capitalization Support: During FY 2019-20, capitalization support of nearly Rs.743.1 crore have been provided to SHGs and its federations upto Oct, 19. Cumulatively, about Rs.8334.7 crore has been provided as capitalization support under the Mission.


      1. SHG-Bank Linkage: More than Rs.2.59 lakh crore of bank credit has been accessed by the SHGs since 2013-14. As on date, outstanding bank loans are to the tune of Rs.88,345 crore against the target of Rs.100986 crore for FY 2019-20.

Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme


The Ministry has been working towards enhancing water conservation in rural areas through various interventions under Mahatma Gandhi NREGS. In the last six months, two major programmes- Jal Shakti Abhiyan (JSA) and 100 Days Programme-completion of Natural Resource Management (NRM) works were launched to augment the focus on taking up water related works. These programmes ensured time-bound mission-mode impetus on water conservation.


Achievements under Mahatma Gandhi NREGA for the Year 2019


Sl. No.


Achievements (01.01.2019 to 17.12.2019)


Person-days Generated

249.65 crore


Fund released to States/UTs

Rs. 65,961 crore


Women Participation



Rate of Completion of Works

74.96 lakh works completed


Job card verification

53.18 lakh Job Cards verified



(Software for Estimate Calculation Using Rural Rates for Employment)

SECURE has greatly benefitted in creating a transparent system for according administrative approval and technical sanction. Now, field functionaries can track, remove obstacles and speed up whole process of workflow. SECURE has been implemented 24 States and 3 UTs across 595 districts.


Key initiatives taken up during the Year 2019:

  • To lay emphasis on water related works, special drive was taken up under Jal Shakti Abhiyan  and 1,220 water stressed blocks were targeted for water conservation in a project mode from 1st July to 15th September, 2019 (Phase I) and 1st October to 30th November, 2019 (Phase II). An expenditure of Rs. 3,158.91 crore was incurred in completion of 3.12 lakh works.
  • A 100 Days programme for Completion of NRM Works was also taken up. A focused approach was followed for enhancing implementation of water related works across all the rural blocks from 5th July to 15th October, 2019. 12.47 lakh works were completed. 
  • The Ministry has initiated an integrated holistic planning of the Gram Panchayats based on watershed development using GIS approach. So far, plans for 12,365 GPs have been designed in a saturation mode for three-years planning.


Pradhan Mantri Awaas Yojana – Gramin (PMAY-G)


In the context of Government’s priority for “Housing for All” by 2022, the erstwhile rural housing scheme has been restructured into Pradhan Mantri Awaas Yojana – Gramin (PMAY-G), which came into effect from 1st April, 2016.


PMAY-G aims to provide a pucca house with basic amenities to all houseless households and households living in kutcha and dilapidated house by 2022.The target number of houses to be constructed by the year 2021-22, to achieve the objective of “Housing for All” is 2.95 Crore which is proposed to be achieved in phases. In the first phase 1.00 crore houses were taken up for construction in 3 years i.e., 2016-17 to 2018-19 and in the second phase 1.95 crore houses would be taken up for construction in 3 years i.e., 2019-20 to 2021-22. PMAY-G enables construction of quality houses by the beneficiaries using local materials, designs and trained masons. For houses to become homes, adoption of a habitat approach through convergence is proposed.

Main features / initiatives under the scheme

  1. Unit assistance Rs.1,20,000 in plain areas and Rs.1,30,000 in hilly states/difficult areas/IAP districts.


  1. In addition to the unit assistance, the beneficiaries through convergence with Swachh Bharat Mission and MGNREGA would be provided the following :-
  1. Rs.12,000/- as assistance for construction of toilet
  2. Unskilled wages of 90 /95 person days for construction of house


  • III. Ensuring Transparency through


Identification of beneficiaries


    1. Identification of beneficiaries based on housing deprivation parameters as per Socio-Economic and Caste Census (SECC) 2011 data after due verification by Gram Sabha.
    2. Out of a total of 4.04 crore households found to be eligible as per SECC 2011 data, 2.50 crore households have been found eligible for getting assistance under PMAY-G after due verification by Gram Sabha as on 17th December, 2019.


Use of comprehensive E and M- Governance solutions

  1. Direct Benefit Transfer (DBT): Under PMAY-G, the assistance to beneficiaries is to be transferred electronically through the AwaasSoft-PFMS platform. This ensured seamless transfer of funds electronically into the Bank/Post Office account of each beneficiary through Fund Transfer Order (FTO).  During the year 2019-20 (as on 17th December, 2019), a total of 9.01 lakh FTOs amounting to Rs.29,000.76 crore have been generated involving 79.78 lakh beneficiaries.
  2. Evidence based monitoring of house construction using Mobile Application: Capturing and uploading geo-tagged, time stamped photographs of the house at various stages of construction has been made mandatory for sanction and release of assistance to the beneficiaries. The mobile application “Awaasapp” developed for capturing the different stages of construction of houses has reduced the time of verification.  As on as on 17th December, 2019, 10.33 crore images have been captured and 5.32 crore images have been approved after due inspection.


  • IV. Real time convergence with other schemes


  1. Real time web link has been developed with NREGASoft to allow auto creation of a NREGA work against each PMAY-G house sanctioned. This ensures that a beneficiary is able to claim his/her entitlement of 90/95 days of paid unskilled labour for construction of PMAY-G house under convergence with MGNREGA


  1. The guideline of the scheme of Pradhan Mantri Ujjwala Yojana (PMUY) implemented by Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Gas have been modified wherein beneficiary of PMAY-G is eligible for getting free LPG connection under the scheme. IN order to ensure real time convergence, the data of the beneficiaries of PMAY-G whose houses have been completed or nearing completion is being shared with Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Gas through web services so that all the beneficiaries of PMAY-G are provided free LPG connection.



  1. Other initiatives
  1. Release of Social Audit Guidelines: The guidelines for Social Audit in PMAY-G have been prepared in consultation with National Institute of Rural Development and Panchayati Raj (NIRD&PR). The same were released on 13th November 2019 by Hon’ble Minister of State for Rural Development. The States/UTs have initiated the process of conducting social audit of the scheme in the Gram Panchayats as per the guidelines issued.


  1. Release of Standard Operation Procedure (SoP) in respect of Unwilling Beneficiary of PMAY-G: The SoP had been prepared in consultation with all the States / UTs and have been issued by MoRD on 13.12.2019. The SoP covers almost all scenarios where the beneficiary is unable to construct his/her PMAY-G house due to reasons such as permanent migration, beneficiary not traceable, beneficiary residing in reserved forests, to name a few. The guidelines also detail out the actions to be taken by the State, District and Block agencies in such cases.
  2. Celebration of Awaas Diwas: Hon’ble Prime Minister of India, Shri Narendra Modi released the Framework For Implementation (FFI) of PMAY-G and formally launched the scheme on 20th November, 2016 in Agra, U.P. Since then, every year, 20th November is celebrated as Awaas Diwas nation-wide. In present year also on 20th November, 2019, all the states/UTs celebrated Awaas Diwas or Awaas Saptah with zeal and enthusiasm wherein various activities were undertaken with active participation from the beneficiaries of PMAY-G. Some of the common activities include:


  1. Sensitization of beneficiaries about PMAY-G viz. number of installments in which assistance is provided to beneficiary, availability of different housing designs available in that area, awareness about mason training program and availability of trained masons.
  2. Organizing interaction of PMAY-G beneficiaries with local banks to facilitate loan to beneficiaries of PMAY-G.
  3. Organizing Bhoomi Pooja, Grehpravesh in presence of state dignitaries.


  1. Financial Reconciliation Module and Admin Module: Administrative Fund Management System i.e. Admin Module has been developed to track the flow of admin funds till end user level through AwaasSoft. This module also helps in tracking activity-wise flow of admin funds.


Further, to rectify discrepancies in the financial progress reports of AwaasSoft and to ensure accounting compliance, Financial Reconciliation Module has been developed.

These modules were made mandatory to use with effect from 1st September 2019.


  1. House Quality Review Application - Geo-tagged photographs of the PMAY-G houses at different stages of construction including completion are being captured in AwaasSoft. MoRD with the help of NIC has developed a “House quality review application” in AwaasSoft to review the quality of the houses using the captured geo-tagged photographs.


  1. National Awards: Every year Ministry organizes National Awards ceremony towards the year-end wherein the Hon’ble Minister of Rural Development in presence of the other dignitaries of MoRD, awards trophies and certificates to the best performing States, Districts and Blocks for various MoRD schemes including PMAY-G. Also, individual awards and certificates are given to officials / functionaries from State, District, Block and Panchayat for their contribution towards the implementation of PMAY-G. This year also, National Awards Distribution function was held on 19th December, 2019 wherein Awards were presented to various categories in respect of PMAY-G.


  1. Workshop with building materials manufacturers and suppliers’ association for ensuring Sustained availability of good quality construction materials- The enormous housing targets under PMAY-G demands a huge supply of construction materials which may lead to its scarcity, resulting in an increase in the cost of the materials and supply of degraded materials to meet the demand. The issue of sustained availability of good quality construction materials is being approached by the MoRD from both demand and supply side. With this background, a workshop was organized with building materials manufacturers and suppliers’ association to augment sustained availability of good quality construction materials under PMAY-G on 17th July 2019.


  1. Updation of Permanent Wait List : Requests have been received from States / UTs with regard to inclusion of those households who though eligible for assistance under PMAY-G as per the parameters specified under SECC-2011, but have not been included in the list of eligible beneficiaries. Since a provision in this regard already exists in the Framework for Implementation of PMAY-G, Ministry of Rural Development has developed Mobile Application “Awaas+”, as well as a module in AwaasSoft to capture details of such beneficiaries. Last date for completion of this exercise was 7th March, 2019. Ministry has already constituted a Committee of Experts for analysis of the data captured using mobile application “Awaas+” so as to arrive at the most logical methodology to identify and including the most deserving households in the PWL for aiding under PMAY-G.


  1. Mason Training

One of the major initiatives of Minisry of Rural Development in the direction of improving the quality of PMAY-G houses and providing livelihood opportunities has been towards ensuring ‘Skill Development of Rural Masons’. This is being done through a formal mechanism of training, assessment and certification. Ministry of Rural has developed Rural Mason Qualification Pack (QP) in consultation with Construction Skill Development Council of India (CSDCI) and got it approved by National Skill Development Corporation (NSDC). As on 1st December, 2019, a total of 90,469 have been enrolled for mason training out of which 79,680 have been assessed and 54,990 have been certified under rural mason training programme


  1. House Design Typologies

Department of Rural Development in this direction in collaboration with UNDP and IIT, Delhi had taken up studies in 18 States viz., West Bengal, Assam, Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Jharkhand, Sikkim, Manipur, Chattisgarh, Tripura, Meghalaya, Maharashtra, Bihar, Odisha, Jammu & Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Mizoram, and Rajasthan. The states have been divided into different housing zones which have been identified on the basis of local materials and technologies, vulnerability to disasters / hazards, livelihood aspects linked to housing designs and existing community skills.  The housing zones identified in a State also took into consideration the prevailing socio-cultural practices. Different house design typologies that are suitable for different housing zones have been identified for the above States. A Compendium titled 'Pahal' comprising of 106 identified house design typologies has also been compiled by the MoRD. The compendium aims to provide government decision makers, engineers engaged in PMAY-G implementation, Panchayats, masons and potential beneficiary households with wider range of options related to designs, materials and technologies for implementation of PMAY-G.

House design typologies have also been developed by Gujarat, Arunachal Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Punjab & Tamil Nadu. States/ UTs are encouraged to adopt design typologies compiled in 'Pahal' and/ or developed by the States.


Demonstration houses based on house design typologies are constructed in the States of Tripura, Sikkim and Maharashtra.


  1. Regional Workshops on “Sharing of Best Practices”: Regional workshops for sharing of best practices were organized for Northern, Eastern, Western, North-Eastern and Southern States. The objective of the workshop was to


  1. Inculcate and adopt best practices: During these workshops all the participant states share the best practices adopted by the States to improves scheme implementation.
  2. Address open issues and challenges: Officials from various divisons of MoRD and other related Central Government Departments like National Informatics Centre (NIC), Internal Finance Division (IFD), Public Finance Management System (PFMS), Construction Skill Development Council (CSDC), Chief Controller of Accounts (CCA) also accompanied during these workshops held at various locations across India. The purpose is to address issues raised by the participant States / UTs and try to solve maximum issues on the on the spot.
  3. The Regional Workshops were held at the following places.


S. No.


Participating States

Date and Place of Conduct



Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir, Punjab, Uttarakhand and Uttar Pradesh

29th – 30th July 2019, Uttarakhand



Bihar, Jharkhand, Odisha, West Bengal, Madhya Pradesh and Chhattisgarh

8th – 9th August 2019, Madhya Pradesh



Maharashtra, Rajasthan, Gujarat, Goa, Daman & Diu and Dadra and Nagar Haveli

19th – 20th September 2019, Daman & Diu



Arunachal Pradesh, Meghalaya, Manipur, Assam, Mizoram, Nagaland, Sikkim and Tripura

23rd – 24th October 2019, Mizoram



Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Karnataka, Andaman & Nicobar Islands and Lakshadweep

11th – 12th November 2019,



  • VI. Achievements


Progress in PMAY-G


Achievement (in lakhs)


Phase-1 (2016-19)




Total Target




Target allocated
















No. of 1st instalments released




No. of 2nd instalments released




No. of 3rd instalments released








                                                         (taken from Awaas Soft MIS, as on 16th Dec 2019)


Shyama Prasad Mukherji Rurban Mission (SPMRM)


  1. Background:


  • i. Shyama Prasad Mukherji Rurban Mission (SPMRM) is focused on comprehensive development of 300 clusters spread across 29 States and 6 Union Territories of the country. These clusters are identified in rural regions displaying potential for economic growth through presence of thematic livelihood activities, increasing population and non-farm employment. The Mission is being implemented with an aim to transform these clusters by focusing on developing skills, strengthening economic activities and provision of crucial basic infrastructure amenities in an equitable and time-bound manner. ‘Integrated Cluster Action Plans (ICAPs) comprising all these components are prepared for every cluster.


Achievements of Shyama Prasad Mukherji Rurban Mission (SPMRM)

  • 9 Empowered Committee meetings were organized under the guidance of Joint Secretary (PP&M)
  • 56 nos. of Integrated Cluster Action Plans (ICAPs) from 17 States and 2 UTs were presented before the EC and approved by the Ministry
  • 113 DPRs from States/UTs have submitted to Ministry
  • 1 Cluster have been submitted by 1 State and approved by the Ministry
  • Rs. 197.91 crore has been released to States/UTs as 1st instalment of CGF
  • Rs. 87.51.14 crore has been released to States as 2nd instalment of CGF
  • Guidelines for Spatial Planning of Rurban Clusters have been finalized & a National Workshop was organized to brainstorm on this framework was organized on 24th February 2019.
  • An Experience sharing National workshop was organized with elected members in New Delhi in June to showcase the works being done under the mission. The meeting was attended by more than 275 participants which includes over 80 elected representatives from the States and Union Territories
  • Seven Cluster have initiated the process of draft spatial plan and have prepared a preliminary spatial plan. A workshop was conducted to review the Spatial plan prepared by five States and for finalization data design standards was held on 30th and 31st October 2019
  • RurbanSoft MIS Portal was developed to digitalize the monitoring of the scheme. States/UTs are pursued to enter the data related to approved Clusters, ICAPs, Detailed Project Reports (DPRs) & Monthly Progress Reports (MPRs) online. As on 17th December 2019, 268 ICAPs, 283 Clusters and 82DPRs freezed in RurbanSoft
  • PFMS integration with MIS portal for payment to vendors to simplify fund flow mechanism is being executed


Saansad Adarsh Gram Yojana (SAGY)


Saansad Adarsh Gram Yojana (SAGY), a pathbreaking initiative in rural development was launched by the Hon’ble Prime Minister on 11 October 2014 with the objective of creating ‘Adarsh Grams’ across the country. The scheme Guidelines for SAGY-I (2014-19) called upon the Hon’ble Members of Parliament to make one Gram Panchayat of their choice, a Model Village by 2016, and another two by 2019. From 2019, under SAGY-II (2014-19) each Member of Parliament during his/her tenure may develop five model villages (one per year) in his/her area till 2024. The Hon’ble MPs adopted 1733 Gram Panchayats under Saansad Adarsh Gram Yojana across the country as of 16 December 2019. These ‘Adarsh Grams’ serve as ‘nucleus of health, cleanliness, greenery and cordiality’ within the village community becoming schools of local development and governance, inspiring neighbouring Gram Panchayats.


Towards holistic development, the Gram Panchayats under the guidance of Hon’ble MPs, follow a structured process of environment creation, social mobilisation, resource mapping and participatory development planning. They prepare Village Development Plans (VDP) containing prioritised time-bound projects to achieve holistic progress of the village, through the convergence of resources. So far, total number of GPs identified by Hon’ble MPs is 1493 under SAGY-I and 240 under SAGY-II. VDPs have been prepared by 1330 Gram Panchayats containing 70,237 activities of which implementation of 43,615 (62%) activities have already been completed under SAGY-I.


National Social Assistance Programme (NSAP)


National social assistance programme (NSAP) is targeted at any such person who has little or no regular means of subsistence from his/her own source of income or financial support from family members or other sources, to be identified by States/UTs. With the objective of providing basic level of financial support, NSAP covers a total of 2.84 crore beneficiaries. Funds amounting to Rs. 3633.30 Crore (40%) havealso been released to the States/UT’s. At present NSAP includes five sub-schemes as its components – IGNOAPS, IGNWPS, IGNDPS, NFBS, Annuparna.


Achievement under NSAP scheme in 2019

  • As on 30.11.2019, An amount of Rs. 6000.00 Crore released to States/UTs for disbursement of benefit to all the eligible beneficiaries under schemes of NSAP.
  • During the year 2019, 2.84 crore beneficiaries benefitted under the schemes of NSAP.
  • Total 13 Crore Digital Transactions reported by the States/UTs under the NSAP schemes.
  • Data of all beneficiaries of NSAP schemes has been digitized over NSAP portal.
  • Biometric Aadhaar authentication and Annual Life Certificate (Jivan -Praman) system, e-pramaan has been started.
  • Social Audit is a concept that has become popular and relevant in the context of good governance.  It is an important tool to empower people and ensure their participation in implementation of a scheme. To conduct social audit, Guidelines and SoP are released.
  • Pilot on Social Audit is successfully completed in 05 States and the same has been started in 10 States.






(Release ID: 1597435) Visitor Counter : 854

Read this release in: Hindi , Bengali

back to Top
Footer Menu